Most of the guards later claimed they were simply acting. This possibility was investigated by Nemeth. As a result, they will have a better chance of changing majority views. However, in Zimbardo's defence the emotional distress experienced by the prisoners could not have been predicted from the outset.
Obedience Obedience is a type of social influence where a person follows an order from another person who is usually an authority figure. Because conformity does not seem to increase in groups larger than four, this is considered the optimal group size. The study has received many ethical criticisms, including lack of fully informed consent by participants as Zimbardo himself did not know what would happen in the experiment it was unpredictable.
Example Trade Unions for specific professions have had disproportionate effect for example through in crippling strikes. It also highlights how we can all be blind to obedience often doing things without question. They may request researchers make changes to the studies design or procedure, or in extreme cases deny approval of the study altogether.
Minorities have a different process of influence, and Moscovici theorized that they do so by a validation process majorities undergo comparison processes. When Milgram moved his experiment to a set of run down offices rather than the impressive Yale University obedience dropped to For a study on normative influence refer to Asch.
Moscovici conducted an experiment in which female participants were shown 36 blue slides of different intensity and asked to report the colors. Group Size Asch altered the number of confederates in his study to see how this effected conformity.
Flexibility A number of researchers have questioned whether consistency alone is sufficient for a minority to influence a majority.
Rotter proposes that people with internal locus of control are better at resisting social pressure to conform or obey, perhaps because they feel responsible for their actions. This type of conformity extends over several aspects of external behavior.
For example I did well on the exams because I revised extremely hard.
Many participants cheated and missed out shocks or gave less voltage than ordered to by the experimenter. A consistent minority exerts as much influence as a non-unanimous majority, particularly if they can 'divide and conquer'. This means that more and more people adopt the minority opinion, until gradually the minority becomes the majority.
The teacher and learner were put into separate rooms.
As the prisoners became more submissive, the guards became more aggressive and assertive. Other guards joined in, and other prisoners were also tormented.
With regard to Milgram' study the experimenter is seen as having legitimate authority as he has scientific status. Protection of participants - Participants were exposed to extremely stressful situations that may have the potential to cause psychological harm.
In a variation of Milgram' study two other participants confederates were also teachers but refused to obey. This article includes a list of referencesrelated reading or external linksbut its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations.
Consistency Moscovici stated that being consistent and unchanging in a view is more likely to influence the majority than if a minority is inconsistent and chops and changes their mind.
Stanford Prison Experiment AO1 Zimbardo wanted to investigate how readily people would conform to the social roles of guard and prisoner in a role-playing exercise that simulated prison life. He found that when the task was carried out in a social group, the participants would report estimates of roughly the same value even though they had previously reported quite different estimates as individuals.
Within a very short time both guards and prisoners were settling into their new roles, with the guards adopting theirs quickly and easily. One person has little influence on a larger group other than in the position they hold relative to othersand so a stranger will have very little influence.
Because the guards and prisoners were playing a role their behavior may not be influenced by the same factors which affect behavior in real life. Social support also decreases obedience to authority.
In Milgram's study the experimenter was in the same room as the participant i. Thus could potentially put them through some form of psychological harm.Moscovici, a social psychologist, emphasized the role of minority influence.
If nothing ever changed, if the majority always ruled, then we would all still be living in caves and eating raw. Initially, Moscovici's conversion theory of minority influence began as a minority opinion that was rejected by many researchers, but eventually members of opposition validated it, thus confirming the theory's exact predictions.
Asch's studies highlighted the power that majorities have over groups and their subsequent conformity, but Moscovici was more interested in the power exerted by minorities. Moscovici beliefs: The study: Conclusion: Disadvantages of Moscovici experiment: Advantages Serge Moscovici believed Minority influence can cause conformity.
As if people hold a different view to our own we examine their argument very closely to find out why their view differs to the majority. Minority Influence Minority influence occurs when a smaller group over time is able to persuade the majority to join their side.
A type of social influence, this topic was researched in depth by Moscovici. Turner and moscovici disagree over the minority influence Minority influence research can be said to begin with Solomon Asch himself being influenced by Muzafer Sherifs () classic study on group.
Oct 23, · "The message must be perceived as coherent, different, plausible, natural, corresponding to reality, and objective," wrote Serge Moscovici in his "Social influence and conformity" in the Handbook.Download